Table 2

Summary of previous publications on intraoperative fluorescence imaging for anatomy visualisation, in terms of study design and imaging techniques

ApplicationsNumber of publicationsNumber of reported cases
(maximum sample size)
Study designImaging techniquesIDEAL stage
Fluorogenic agentFrequently used dose
(range)
Cholangiography683386 (676)Small case series,* 51 (75%)
Prospective studies, 36 (53%)
Large multicentre studies,† 3 (4%)
RCTs, 3 (4%)
ICG (99%)IV: 2.5 mg (44%)(0.25–13.5 mg)
Gallbladder injection:
No dominant dosage [0.0025-
2.5 mg/mL]
3
Hepatic segmentation51941 (105)Small case series,* 46 (90%)
Prospective studies, 22 (43%)
Large multicentre studies,† 0 (0%)
RCTs, 1 (2%)
ICG (100%)IV: 2.5 mg (36% of 36 reports) or
0.25–0.5 mg/kg (17%)(0.25–5 mg)
PV injection: 0.025–0.05 mg/mL
(54% of 24 reports) [0.005-
5 mg/mL]
2b
Lung segmentation391152 (245)Small case series,* 36 (92%)
Prospective studies, 15 (38%)
Large multicentre studies,† 0 (0%)
RCTs, 0 (0%)
ICG (100%)IV: 2.5–5 mg (22% of 32 reports) or
0.25–0.5 mg/kg (19%)
(0.04–25 mg)
Bronchial injection:
No dominant dosage(1.25–25 mg)
2a
Ureterography14274 (59)Small case series,* 14 (100%)
Prospective studies, 7 (50%)
Large multicentre studies,† 0 (0%)
RCTs, 0 (0%)
ICG (50%)
MB (29%)
Ureteral injection of ICG:
2.5 mg/mL (50%)
IV MB: 0.125–1 mg/kg (29%)
2a
Parathyroid identification532674 (210)Small case series,* 39 (74%)
Prospective studies, 30 (57%)
Large multicentre studies,† 2 (4%)
RCTs, 3 (6%)
Autofluorescence (58%)
ICG (40%)
None for autofluorescence
IV ICG: 5 mg (13%)(2.5–15 mg)
3
  • *Retrospective or prospective studies including less than 100 cases at five or fewer centres, with no control arm.

  • †Prospective multicentre study including 100 or more cases.

  • ICG, indocyanine green; MB, methylene blue; RCT, randomised controlled trial.