Table 1

Criteria used to assess study design according to the IDEAL framework7

IDEAL stageIdentifying study characteristics
1 (Idea)Case report.
2‚ÄČa (Development)Single-center/single intervention; case series/ prospective cohort.
2b (Exploration)Prospective multicenter exploration cohort study or pilot/feasibility multicenter RCTs.
3 (Assessment)Full-scale RCT which involves a comparison to routine clinical practice.
4 (Long-term)Long-term evaluation of the implementation within routine clinical practice using registries or databases.
  • IDEAL, Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment and Long-term fFollow-up; RCT, randomized controlled trial .