Table 3

Associations between TEE and respiratory failure among Medicare beneficiaries who had ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (5% national sample)

HR* (95% CI)
Primary models
Unadjusted1.0 (0.8 to 1.4)
Adjusted for age, sex, race, and diagnosis of stroke versus transient ischemic attack0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)
Also adjusted for comorbidities, thrombolysis, and thrombectomy0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)
Subgroup analyses
Patients who had ischemic stroke0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)
Patients who had transient ischemic attack0.8 (0.1 to 5.4)
Sensitivity analyses*
Excluding patients with endocarditis or undergoing cardioversion0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)
Outcome limited to respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy0.9 (0.5 to 1.7)
Excluding patients with in-hospital death or discharge to hospice0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)
Including TEE performed on the same day as intubation1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)
  • *All sensitivity analyses were based on model 3 from the primary models.

  • TEE, transesophageal echocardiography.