Table 2

Summary of previous publications on intraoperative fluorescence imaging for perfusion assessment in terms of study design and imaging techniques

ApplicationsNo. of publicationsNo. of reported cases
(Max. sample size)
Study designImaging techniquesIDEAL stage
Fluorogenic agentFrequently used dose (range)
CABG171401 (200)Small case series*, 9 (53%)
Prospective studies, 15 (88%)
Large multicenter study†, 0 (0%)
RCT, 1 (6%)
ICG (100%)1.25–2.5 mg recognized (35%)
(0.625–5.0 mg)
2b
Upper GI surgery351001 (86)Small case series*, 31 (89%)
Prospective studies, 12 (34%)
Large multicenter study†, 0 (0%)
RCT, 0 (0%)
ICG (100%)2.5 mg IV (34%)
(1.25–25 mg)
2a
Colorectal surgery333718 (609)Small case series*, 15 (45%)
Prospective studies, 16 (48%)
Large multicenter study†, 2 (6%)
RCT, 0 (0%)
ICG (100%)2.5–5 mg IV (31%) or 0.2–0.5 mg/kg IV (30%)
(2.5–12.5 mg)
2b
Solid organ transplantation13308 (77)Small case series*, 13 (100%)
Prospective studies, 9 (69%)
Large multicenter study†, 0 (0%)
RCT, 0 (0%)
ICG (100%)2.5–7.5 mg IV (38%) or 0.3–0.5 mg/kg IV (31%)
(0.6–25 mg)
2a
Reconstructive surgery384830 (3,315)Small case series*, 23 (61%)
Prospective studies, 17 (45%)
Large multicenter study†, 0 (0%)
RCT, 1 (3%)
ICG (97%)5–12.5 mg IV (37%) or 0.5 mg/kg IV (13%)
(1.5–30 mg)
3
Cerebral aneurysm surgery603745 (347)Small case series*, 45 (75%)
Prospective studies, 7 (12%)
Large multicenter study†, 0 (0%)
RCT, 0 (0%)
ICG (98%)0.2–0.5 mg/kg IV (35%) or 25 mg IV (32%)
(6–30 mg)
2b
  • *Retrospective or prospective studies including less than 100 cases in five or less centers, without a control arm.

  • †Prospective multicenter study including equal to or more than 100 cases.

  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; GI, gastrointestinal ; ICG, indocyanine green; IV, intravenous; RCT, randomized controlled trial.